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  • 淺談應用文的特點和作用

    2019-01-25作者:推薦訪問:應用文 小學生作文

    摘 要 應用文在長期的歷史發展中,形成了區別于文學作品和實用文等其它文類的鮮明特點,發揮了各方面的社會功能。學習應用文寫作,要了解應用文的特點和作用,才能增強寫作的自覺性,才能使我們自覺地學寫應用文,寫好應用文。

      關鍵詞 應用文 特點 作用

      1應用文的特點

      1.1使用價值的實用性

      應用文是“應付”生活、“用”于實務的文章,它是為適應社會需要而產生的。實用性是應用文最突出的特點,是應用文區別于其它文類的本質屬性,有沒有實用性成了判斷應用文寫作成敗的標準。應用文的實用性主要體現在內容和形式兩個方面。從內容上看,應用文有明確的目的性和針對性。為了達到實用的目的,應用文的內容力求單一。一篇應用文應著重解決一個問題,不要把不同的問題混雜在一篇之中,弄得什么事也辦不成。為了達到實用的目的,應用文要特別講求實效。一方面是為了提高辦事效率,以免耽誤時間,給工作造成損失;另一方面是有些應用文在一定時間內有效,時過境遷,也就沒有什么實用價值了。從形式上看,應用文具有一套為內容服務的相應體式和事務性特點。它的結構、格式、語言都帶有一定的法規性和慣用性,它總是與現實生活和工作事務緊密聯在一起,內容求實用,形式求得體。

      1.2形式結構的模式性

      和其他文體比較,應用文的結構具有相對固定的模式,即有大致相同或相似的布局和寫法,有大體統一的要求等。應用文的這種相對固定的模式是在長期使用的過程中形成的。有的文種是“約定俗成”,即在民間代代相傳,互相仿效,習慣成自然,得到公認的。有的文種是“法定使成”,即由權力機關以法規形式對文種格式加以認定,并在其管轄范圍內普遍遵照執行的。

      1.3語言表述的簡約性

      應用文的篇幅一般比較短小,要求用最精練的文字準確地說明事由,解說事理,陳述辦法,以達到處理公私事務的目的。在表達方式上,應用文多用說明,也用敘述和議論,但敘述多用直筆,不用曲筆,議論不旁征博引,只就事論理。至于抒情與描寫,則盡量少用,甚至不用。在語言運用上,應用文貴在精要,要根據處理事務和文種的要求,用精要的語言平實明快地表達,有什么說什么,有多少說多少,不能“少一字”,也不能“多一言”,因為,多了或少了都會影響意思的表達。應用文除了具有價值的實用性、結構的模式性、表述的簡約性三大特性外,還具有選材的真實性、思維的邏輯性、讀者的特定性、使用的廣泛性等特點,但它們算不上區別于其它文體的本質屬性,在這里也就略去不述了。

      2應用文的作用

      2.1法規準繩的作用

      在公務應用文中,有相當一部分是用于公布法律和行政法規的。一經有關權力機關通過并發布施行,就具有法規準繩的作用,任何人都要自覺遵守,不得違反,否則將受到不同程度的處罰。還有像布告、通告等公文,如要求下屬機關及有關人員“遵照執行”的,或要求人民群眾“共同遵守”的,也在相應范圍內具有法定的權威性和不可逾越的約束力,發揮著法規準繩的作用。

      2.2指揮管理的作用

      在黨政機關、企事業單位、群眾團體的公務活動中,上級機關對下級機關發布的公文,如決定、指示等,都起著指揮作用,下級機關必須“遵照執行”或“參照執行”。這樣,中央的方針政策,才能逐層下達,深入到人民群眾中去,并化為全國人民的自覺行動;各具體單位的各項工作,才能統一步調,有秩序地開展。同時,下級機關對上級機關所作的請示、報告等,及時反映了基層的情況,也為上級機關制定政策,及時指導工作提供了依據。

      2.3聯系協調的作用

      在現代社會中,人的活動范圍更加廣泛,群體與群體、群體與個人、個人與個人都存在著千絲萬縷的關系,需要加強聯系、互通信息、處理好人際關系,做好聯系協調工作,而應用文就是聯系協調的工具之一。無論是行政公文、事務文書,還是日常應用文和專用文書,它們在交流信息、溝通關系、聯絡感情、促進協調方面,都發揮著不同層次的聯系協調作用。

      2.4宣傳教育的作用

      應用文是用來處理公私事務的,但要處理好公私事務,必須讓人們知道應該做什么、為什么要做、怎樣去做。這就需要擺清事實,講透道理,實際上是在進行宣傳教育,也就是說應用文具有直接而顯著的宣傳教育作用。例如,行政公文的發布,是在宣傳黨的路線、方針、政策,而人們在學習理解、貫徹執行的過程中,也受到深刻的教育。在市場經濟條件下,應用文的宣傳教育作用,又有了新的表現:眾多的企事業單位運用應用文這一宣傳工具,宣傳組織形象,傳播組織信息,以期擴大自身影響,提高自身的知名度和美譽度,贏得社會的信任和支持。近幾年來的廣告大戰和公益廣告的興起便是很好的證明。

      2.5憑證依據的作用

      應用文有憑證依據的作用,在不同文種中有程度不同的表現。就機關公文而言,每份公文都反映著制發機關的意圖,收文機關以此為依據去處理工作、解決問題。就契據文書而言,其憑證依據作用更為明顯,如協議書、合同等作為雙方彼此確定的權利和義務的憑據,雙方都要信守,任何一方違約,都要以此追究責任。其它應用文如會議記錄、介紹信、證明信,甚至書信、日記、條據等,都可以作為憑證,都有憑證依據作用。雖然有些應用文的憑證依據作用會隨著事情的辦完而消失,但有些應用文,作為真實的歷史記錄,在完成其現實價值作用后,將立卷歸檔,作為文獻資料留供后人查考,起著憑證依據作用。

      綜上所述,這五方面的作用是應用文最基本的社會功能,它們是互相聯系的,要作為一個整體去理解。事實上,往往一個文種乃至一篇應用文,同時發揮著幾方面的功能,而不是單一的作用。

    作文投稿
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