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  • 如何寫好應用文

    2019-01-25作者:推薦訪問:應用文 小學生作文

    應用文就是在實際生活中經常運用的一些實用性文體,怎樣寫好應用文。實用的應用文按其性質、特點和作用 可分為公文、常用事務文書和日常應用文三個大類。

      公文是按一定的程式表述社會政治集團或機關、團體、企事業單位意志的法定文書。公文作 為治理國家,規范社會政治、經濟、軍事、文化活動,約束社會成員行為的工具,有政令性 、權威性、嚴肅性和規定性的特點和強調與貫徹、依據與商洽、宣傳與教育等項作用。

      公文的形成和制發有嚴格的規定和操作程序。

      根據行文內容和目的,公文表現為不同的法定文件:命令(令)、指令、指示;決定、決議、 會議紀要;報告、請示、批復;布告、公告、通告;通報、通知、函(電)。

      常用事務文書是黨政機關、企事業單位以及社會團體處理日常公務活動時廣泛使用的公用文 書,具有很強的實用性、事務性,有不同的慣用體式。

      事務文書不是正式公文,一般地說,其權威性和法律效力不及正式公文。但是,如果某一事 務性文書(如計劃、條例、規定、辦法、細則、方案等)是正式公文的附件,則其法定意義等 同于公文;如按慣例由機關首長或其代表口頭發出,或經單位領導集體通過,則其在單位內 部的權威性和行政約束力便大為增強;如該文書是法律規定的必須事項(如上市公司的有關 公告),則其文書具有法定文件的意義。

      常用的事務文書有計劃、總結;講話稿、演說詞;簡報、簽報、會議記錄、大事記;規章制 度、條例、細則、辦法;合同、協議書、聘書;賀(唁)電、祝(悼)詞、請柬、聲明、啟事; 外事函(電)等。

      中學生接觸的公文范圍有限,作文方面不作要求,作文寫作技巧《怎樣寫好應用文》。但是作為社會成員,對公文的性質、特點 和作用有所了解還是必要的,意在強調公文的法定意義,提示同學們在青少年時期就養成正 確對待公文的權威性和嚴肅性,依法行事的良好習慣。而對于常用事務文書和日常應用文中 經常接觸,應用亦較多的文種,則應認真學習掌握,以備社會生活的需要。

      應該指出,雖然應用文題在中學階段的語文水平測試中出現不多,但是在社會生活中卻常常 是體現學生語文能力的一個重要標志,應引起同學們的足夠重視。而且,隨著社會生活的發 展,人際交流范圍的擴展,法制社會的形成,應用文的用途會越來越廣泛,作用也會越來越 明顯。

      應用文的寫作應把握以下幾點:首先要明確目的,即究竟要干什么,達到什么目的。如果目 的不明確,行文時就抓不住要領。

      其次,要選好文體。我們在街上時常可以看到有的店前堂 而皇之的寫著“通知”,細看其內容,其實就是一則啟事。通知是國家行政機關或企事業單 位的正式公文,一個小小的店家有什么權力隨便給路人下通知呢?這就是選錯了文體。哪一 種文體,作為哪一種用途,都有明確的分工和約定俗成的用法。違背了這些用法,就會造成 交際的失敗。

      再次,確定身份。寫應用文,還要看對方的身份來選擇人稱、用語、體式。如 同樣是書信,給上級、長輩和同學、好朋友的語氣用詞就有不同。面對大眾的公文和面對個 人的私信也有不同。所以,寫應用文時必須搞清楚自己的身份、位置,寫給誰或哪個單位。 這樣,行文用語才會心中有數,體式和語言上才不會出現大的偏差。

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