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  • 應用文語體在網絡環境中的演變和應用探究論文

    2019-01-25作者:推薦訪問:應用文 小學生作文

    網絡媒體的高度互動和參與性,促進了網民之間的人際交流,在這種新型的人際交流空間里,形成了具有獨特形式和規則的網絡語言,并隨著網絡的普及迅速流傳開來。網絡催生了語言的新語體—— 網絡語言,而網絡新語體也正對傳統的應用文語體帶來了巨大的沖擊與影響。

      1語體的定義

      語體是言語交際的體式,它是根據言語風格的異同劃分出來的類別。換言之,語體,即人們根據不同的交際領域、交際目的、交際方式使用不同語言材料所形成的不同特點的語言體系。它是語言特點的綜合。如交際領域有不同環境、不同范圍、與表達者的不同關系之分;交際目的有或要人理解,或要人感動,或要人行動,或要人回答等等的千差萬別;交際方式有書面、口頭、屏幕、電碼等方式和媒介的區別。這些在語言運用上有不同的特點如調音、選詞、擇句、構篇等,反復出現形成一定的體系既是語體。

      在實際生活中,根據不同的語言環境來有效地進行語言交流,不僅涉及內容,而且也涉及語言的本身,涉及語言材料及其表達手段、組合方式等等的準確選擇。這就是語體學所要研究的課題。因此,語體學可以說是現代語言學中緊密聯系社會交際環境來研究語言可變性規律的一門分支學科。

      2網絡媒體對應用文語體的影響

      網絡媒體的高度互動和參與性,促進了網民之間的人際交流,在這種新型的人際交流空間里,形成了具有獨特形式和規則的網絡語言,并隨著網絡的普及迅速流傳開來。比如美眉(長得漂亮的女生)、偶(我)、886(拜拜嘍,再見之意):)(笑臉)等等,原本是人們在網上社區、網絡聊天室、BBS等開放式網絡空間進行信息交流和人際溝通時所使用的專用符號,現在流行開來,甚至滲透到傳統媒體之中。

      網絡語言主要是一種通過文字進行口語式溝通的工具,保留了人際傳播口語化的許多特點。比如,人們口語表達比較隨意,不像寫文章那樣注意語法、邏輯關系,甚至字斟句酌。不少網絡語言也頻繁運用倒裝、省略等形式,只要清楚表達意義,不講求規范規則。再如,在網絡語言中諧音詞特別多,這也符合口語傳播重發音,不重文字的規律。另外,口語中常用的象聲詞、方言等,在網絡語言中也被大量應用。如:后后(模擬笑聲)、偶灰常灰常生氣樂(模擬福建話發音)、就醬紫(就這樣子,臺灣話發音)。網絡語言的口語特征營造了一種輕松、隨意的交流氛圍,這也是它受到網民們歡迎的一個重要原因。

      3網絡流行新語體的演變

      網絡語體特指在網絡聊天、網絡論壇、各類BBS及網絡文學中表現出來的風格、格調、氣氛。以下是最近流行的網絡新語體。

      3.1 知音體

      2007年8月,天涯社區有人發帖:請大家用無敵、優雅、冷艷的“知音體標題”給熟悉的童話、寓言、故事、名著等重新命名。發帖者首先把《白雪公主》改名為“苦命的妹子啊,七個義薄云天的哥哥為你撐起小小的一片天”,激起無數網友的創作欲望。《嫦娥奔月》被改為“鑄成大錯的逃亡愛妻啊,射擊冠軍的丈夫等你悔悟歸來”,《唐伯虎點秋香》被改為“我那愛人打工妹喲,博士后為你隱姓埋名化身農民工”……一場大賽后,留下無數經典笑料。

      知音體就是指用這種用煽情的標題來吸引讀者的文章風格,名稱來源于著名雜志《知音》。《知音》的創始人之一—— 胡勛壁先生曾率先在中國期刊界提出了具有哲學理念的“人情美、人性美”的辦刊理念,雜志《知音》以刊登情感故事,宣揚人性美為宗旨。這種煽情的文章風格被稱為知音體,這種風格的標題就叫知音體標題。

      3.2 梨花體

      “梨花體”諧音“麗華體”,由女詩人趙麗華的名字諧音而來。趙麗華,中國作家協會會員,國家一級作家,曾擔任第二屆魯迅文學獎詩歌獎評委。趙麗華的某些作品形式比較另類,引發了不小的爭議。網友們以嘲笑的心態仿寫了大量的口語詩歌,并把趙麗華的詩歌風格和仿制她創作的詩歌,戲稱為“梨花體”。梨花體語言直白、簡單,似乎一覽無余,又似乎蘊涵深意。

      例如趙麗華的《我愛你的寂寞如同你愛我的孤獨》:“趙又霖和劉又源/一個是我侄子/七歲半/一個是我外甥/五歲/現在他們兩個出去玩了。”有網友“展袂舞翩翩”仿寫了《下班》:“還有四分鐘/六點了/老板還在催我/把文件整理完/嗚呼。”

      3.3 腦殘體

      在QQ空間、論壇以及“X舞團”等網絡游戲中,有不少玩家大量使用非正規漢字符號作為個性簽名。這類文字的來源五花八門。大多出自繁體漢字、日文漢字和生僻字,也有部分簡體漢字,甚至還有日文假名、漢語拼音字母等,有時還夾雜一大堆雜亂的符號。網友們只能通過文字的偏旁猜測其大致的讀音,有網友將此類文字戲稱為“火星文”,也有人斥之為“腦殘體”,并把使用腦殘體的人稱為“腦殘兒”。因為獨特、另類,腦殘體被許多追求個性的網友視為一種時尚、一種風格,競相模仿。例如:“莓天想埝禰已宬儰1.種漝慣”(每天想念你已成為一種習慣);“1.魵鳡鯖.1.種顏銫..Me的丗堺抧囿壹祌彥頁色”(一份感情,一種顏色,我的世界只有一種顏色)。

      4網絡語體的應用分析

      從網絡新語體的命名看,“知音體”借用《知音》雜志名稱命名;“梨花體”由女作家的名字諧音而來;“腦殘體”用“腦殘”比喻難認難懂。語體的命名運用了各種修辭手法,既貼切恰當,又生動形象。

      新語體的層出不窮體現了使用者很強的創新意識。語言的變化發展與社會變遷緊密相連,網絡時代的到來,反映在語言上就是一種力求變化的創新心理。《中國互聯網絡發展狀況統計》顯示:我國的互聯網用戶男性占59.3%,女性占40.7%;年齡大多在18至35歲;學歷在高中至大學本科之間。正是這樣一個特殊社會群體組成了網絡社會,他們追求個性,在網絡交流和傳播過程中閃爍出許多智慧的火花,帶著一種顛覆和創新的快感,創造屬于網絡的新新詞語和語言風格。

      網絡新語體反映了一種叛逆思想,是一種被壓抑心理的釋放。每一種新語體誕生之初,往往摻雜著些許無奈、些許嘲諷、些許戲謔、些許叛逆,而這些成分更容易激發年輕一族的從眾心理。同時,由于網絡隱匿了人們的社會背景、職業、年齡等情況,復雜的人際關系簡單化,網絡成為一個自由、輕松、想象的空間,這種特定的交際途徑、交際環境和交際主體,促使網絡語體呈現出與日常用語不同的風格一幽默、簡捷、夸張。

      5網絡語體的應用展望

      對于網絡新語體的層出不窮,有很多專家學者很是擔心,認為它們的流行勢必影響青少年的語言學習,對祖國語言文字的規范發展非常不利。筆者認為,這些新語體積僅是些非主流的網絡語體,難登大雅之堂,不妨保持寬容、多元的態度。網絡世界的語言有自身的游戲規則和發展規律,隨著它的不斷發展,一定會走向更良性、更規范。

    作文投稿
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